Yes, this is a controversial subject. Yes, there are theories that Roman soldiers at the time may have been in the area and that rapes would occur due to their presence. How about we set those theories aside and look at some Biblical evidence?
Let us for a moment assume that Mary, Jesus’ mother, was either raped or seduced. By who? It doesn’t matter.
What happens? Joseph stands by her even though they are not married and the child is not his. Not without hesitation though, understandably.
The result? Jesus has a wonderfully loving step-father but is aware that things could have turned out much differently for him had it not been for his step-father’s grace in the situation. Presumably, at some point Jesus would likely have learned how other women fared in similar situations without their companion remaining supportively by their side.
Conclusion? Jesus is born into a circumstance to allow him the understanding of love and grace early on. This is a strong fit for what Jesus taught later in life.
As for the notion that Jesus was conceived of the Holy Spirit, wouldn’t that be a nice way to describe his conception without holding on to the negative associations of a rape or a seduction? And a clever connection to Old Testament prophesy, which if it is true, Jesus was able to utilize during his ministry in order to connect his teachings with beliefs of the time.
It is mentioned in the Bible that Jesus came to understand the beliefs of the time quite well as it is said that he impressed religious leaders with his knowledge at a young age. I imagine the connection to the prophesy his parents enacted was a big inspiration for Jesus to have a focus on learning the Holy literature. Surely he was aware of the rest of the prophesy involved and worked to connect himself with it to share his message of love. Of course, he did have nearly 18 years to prepare.
And of course, this is just a theory.